Methodical, continuous improvement

PDCA Overview


  • Expanded as Plan-do-check-act

  • Developed by Walter Edward Deming 

  • Also called "Deming cycle", "Shewhart Cycle", "Deming Wheel", PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act)

Example of PDCA


  • Plan

    • A large number of customer complaints are filed

    • Manager/ team reviews - highest are for incorrect billing

    • further analysis reveals an issue with new rates charged from this month, have not been explained/highlighted on the bill 

    • Team plans to reach out to a few customers, confirm the issue and explain the new rates

  • Do

    • The team reaches out to the customers, explains the new rates, notes if the complaint can be closed

  • Check 

    • Customers have been found to be satisfied

  • Act

    • The team sends out mailers to customers explaining the new rates

    • Highlights the changes in the bill formats for future

    • Learns that new rates when deployed should be highlighted in the bill

PDCA Cycle


“Eighty-Five percent of the reasons
for failure to meet customer
expectations are relatedto

deficiencies In Systems And Processes
….… rather than the employee.
the role of management is to
change the process rather than
badgering individuals to do better.”

- Deming on processes